These verses describe Jesus as the Word. The world was made (created) through Him. The "Word was God." Jesus is God. He is the light that shines in the darkness. Though He created the world, the darkness (evil) could not comprehend it. "In Him is life, the life that is the light of men."
1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 He was in the beginning with God. 3 All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made. 4 In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. 5 And the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it.
When it says that "His own did not receive Him," I believe He is describing the religious leaders: Pharisees, Sadducees, priests, scribes, chief priests, and elders. The 12 disciples were Jewish. Many Jews believed in Jesus by this time. Like it says in verse 12, "...as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, to those who believe in His name."
10 He was in the world, and the world was made through Him, and the world did not know Him. 11 He came to His own, and His own did not receive Him. 12 But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, to those who believe in His name: 13 who were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.
The Son of man; the Son of God.
14 And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.
Joseph of Arimathea was a rich man who believed in Jesus. Nicodemus was a Pharisee, a ruler of the Jews, who also believed (John 3:1-21). These are just two names. We have no idea how many Jews came to believe in Christ. It was risky for Joseph and Nicodemus to bury Jesus. They were going against some very angry, irrational religious leaders. I understand the feeling. You get to a point where you give up fear, and do what's right. Then God's strength gives you the ability to press on.
57 Now when evening had come, there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph, who himself had also become a disciple of Jesus. 58 This man went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded the body to be given to him.
39 And Nicodemus, who at first came to Jesus by night, also came, bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred pounds.
59 When Joseph had taken the body, he wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, 60 and laid it in his new tomb which he had hewn out of the rock; and he rolled a large stone against the door of the tomb, and departed. 61 And Mary Magdalene was there, and the other Mary, sitting opposite the tomb.
There are always good people and bad people in every group. While Nicodemus provided myrrh and aloes for Jesus' body, other Pharisees went to Pilate to ensure His body stayed in the tomb. Pilate couldn't understand their anxiety. As a business woman, it sounds to me like he wanted them out of his office.
62 On the next day, which followed the Day of Preparation, the chief priests and Pharisees gathered together to Pilate, 63 saying, "Sir, we remember, while He was still alive, how that deceiver said, 'After three days I will rise.' 64 Therefore command that the tomb be made secure until the third day, lest His disciples come by night and steal Him away, and say to the people, 'He has risen from the dead.' So the last deception will be worse than the first."
65 Pilate said to them, "You have a guard; go your way, make it as secure as you know how." 66 So they went and made the tomb secure, sealing the stone and setting the guard.
And so it was, Jesus' body was placed in a rich man's tomb. The tomb was made secure with a very large stone. A guard stood in front of the tomb, so the disciples couldn't go and steal the body. The chief priests and Pharisees must have breathed a sigh of relief. It was over. But the 3 days were not over... Could a tomb really contain God?